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Observing Latent Heat with a Portable Hand Warmer
This teacher-directed demonstration provides a conceptual understanding of latent heat. Using the example of a chemical hand warmer, students learn about phase changes from liquid to solid and from solid to liquid and observe that one of these phase changes releases heat while the other requires heat to be added. These concepts are then reinforced in a demonstration which involves heating water and ice water. Evaluation suggestions are also included.
Intended for grade levels:
  • Middle (6-8)
  • High (9-12)
Type of resource:
  • For the classroom:
    • Presentation / Demo
  • Chemistry
Technical requirements:
Adobe Acrobat reader
Cost / Copyright:
No cost
Copyright 2005, Bryan L. Aivazian
DLESE Catalog ID: NYIC-000-000-000-033
Educational standards:
  • National Science Education Standards (NSES):
    • 5-8:
      • B - Physical science:
        • Properties and changes of properties in matter
        • Transfer of energy
    • 9-12:
      • B - Physical science:
        • Interactions of energy and matter
      • D - Earth and space science:
        • Energy in the earth system
Resource contact / Creator / Publisher:
Author: Bryan Aivazian
Science Instructor
Natrona County School District