This
activity
will
help
students
understand
how
the
Northern
Lights
work,
what
causes
them,
and
how
to
observe
them.
They
will
use
charts
and
geometry
to
calculate
geographic
locations
of
aurora
based
on
satellite
data,
how
they
appear
at
different
latitudes,
and
their
height
above
the
ground.
Instructions
for
the
activity
are
provided,
and
an
extensive
list
of
links
to
additional
materials
is
also
...



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In
this
activity
students
will
apply
the
concept
of
triangulation
in
a
variety
of
problem
solving
situations
involving
the
Aurora
Borealis.
They
learn
that
before
the
advent
of
photography
in
the
1880's,
auroral
observers
tried
to
determine
the
height
of
aurora
by
the
method
of
triangulation
and,
from
the
geometry
of
the
triangle,
they
estimated
that
aurora
occurred
between
650
to
1,000
km
above
the
...



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This
article
discusses
the
results
of
a
mathematical
study
on
how
efficiently
the
energy
of
the
sun
is
converted
into
fossil
fuels.
It
points
out
that
plants
convert
the
sun's
energy
in
to
carbon,
which
is
the
basic
constituent
of
natural
gas,
oil,
and
coal.
However,
the
process
is
inefficient
in
that
only
about
9
percent
of
the
carbon
in
the
original
plants
is
converted
into
the
form
of
coal,
and
...



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In
this
activity,
students
mount
a
covered
mirror
on
a
wall
at
eye
level,
then
work
in
pairs
to
predict
where
two
people
must
stand
so
each
can
see
the
other's
reflection
in
the
mirror.
Each
pair
will
discuss
and
agree
on
the
places
where
they
think
they
must
stand,
then
remove
the
cover
from
the
mirror
and
test
their
predictions.
As
an
extension
of
this
activity,
they
can
design
and
construct
large
...



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In
this
activity,
students
fasten
two
mirrors
together
using
masking
tape
and
observe
the
relationship
between
the
angles
of
the
two
hinged
mirrors
and
the
number
of
images
produced.
Students
mark
angles
between
180
degrees
and
20
degrees.
They
open
the
hinged
mirrors
to
each
of
the
specified
angles,
place
an
object
between
the
two
mirrors,
and
count
and
record
the
number
of
images
they
see.
In
a
...



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In
this
activity,
students
use
a
variation
of
the
method
of
measuring
the
diameter
of
the
Sun
that
utilizes
the
same
principle
involved
in
making
a
pinhole
camera.
They
substitute
a
masked
mirror
for
the
pinhole
and
a
darkened
room
for
the
box.
The
advantage
of
this
technique
is
that
the
Sun's
image
is
cast
over
a
greater
distance,
thus
enlarging
the
image.
Because
the
experiment
is
done
in
a
darkened
...



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In
this
activity,
students
will
construct
a
device
to
measure
slope
(clinometer),
use
it
to
measure
a
series
of
slopes
in
their
area,
and
relate
the
concept
to
physical
structures
around
them.
Clinometers
will
be
constructed
using
the
material
and
instructions
provided
with
the
activity.
Working
in
groups,
the
students
will
measure
three
slopes
they
select
themselves
and
calculate
the
result
in
both
...



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This
reference
provides
information
on
fundamental
physical
constants,
the
International
System
of
Units
(SI,
or
the
metric
system),
and
the
essentials
of
expressing
measurement
uncertainty.
The
section
on
physical
constants
includes
their
values
and
related
information
as
well
as
a
searchable
bibliography.
The
section
on
SI
includes
units
and
prefixes,
rules
and
style
conventions,
background
information,
...



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In
this
exercise,
students
investigate
the
use
of
conditional
probability
(the
likelihood
that
a
given
event
will
occur
within
a
specified
time
period)
in
assessing
earthquake
hazards.
Introductory
materials
explain
that
conditional
probability
is
based
on
the
past
history
of
earthquakes
in
a
region
and
on
how
and
when
earthquakes
recur;
and
discuss
the
different
types
of
models
that
can
be
developed
...



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In this activity, students import mean temperature data from the U.S. Historical Climatic Network (USHCN) into a spreadsheet program and use it to prepare graphs and calculate statistical measures and trends. It can be used in a course with climate change content or as an introduction to basic statistics. A tutorial on using Excel for basic statistics and an answer document are provided.



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